Welcome to the Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database

Hackenberger et al. 2024. CARPDM: cost-effective antibiotic resistome profiling of metagenomic samples using targeted enrichment. bioRxiv 2024.03.27.587061.

Smith et al. 2023. A standardized nomenclature for resistance-modifying agents in the Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database. Microbiology Spectrum, 11, e02744239.

Edalatmand & McArthur. 2023. CARD*Shark: automated prioritization of literature curation for the Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database. Database, 2023, baad023.

Alcock et al. 2023. CARD 2023: Expanded curation, support for machine learning, and resistome prediction at the Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database. Nucleic Acids Research, 51, D690-D699.

Raphenya et al. 2022. Datasets for benchmarking antimicrobial resistance genes in bacterial metagenomic and whole genome sequencing. Nature Scientific Data, 9, 341.

Alcock et al. 2020. CARD 2020: Antibiotic Resistome Surveillance with the Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database. Nucleic Acids Research, 48, D517-D525.

Chen et al. 2019. Detection of antimicrobial resistance using proteomics and the Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database: a case study. Proteomics Clinical Application, 14, e1800182.

Guitor et al. 2019. Capturing the Resistome: A robust and reliable targeted capture method for detecting antibiotic resistance determinants. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 64, e01324-19.

Faltyn et al. 2019. Evolution and nomenclature of the trimethoprim resistant dihydrofolate (dfr) reductases. Preprints, 2019050137.

Tsang et al. 2019. Pathogen taxonomy updates at the Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database: Implications for molecular epidemiology. Preprints, 2019070222.

Jia et al. 2017. CARD 2017: expansion and model-centric curation of the Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database. Nucleic Acids Research, 45, D566-573.

McArthur et al. 2013. The Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 57, 3348-57.

YouTube: Canadian Bioinformatics Workshops 2023: Antimicrobial Resistant Gene (AMR) Analysis

1. About the CARD, ARO, and RGI

The Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database ("CARD") provides data, models, and algorithms relating to the molecular basis of antimicrobial resistance. The CARD provides curated reference sequences and SNPs organized via the Antibiotic Resistance Ontology ("ARO"). These data can be browsed on the website or downloaded in a number of formats. These data are additionally associated with detection models, in the form of curated homology cut-offs and SNP maps, for prediction of resistome from molecular sequences. These models can be downloaded or can be used for analysis of genome sequences using the Resistance Gene Identifier ("RGI"), either online or as a stand-alone tool.

The CARD was designed and developed by the laboratories of Drs. Andrew G. McArthur and Gerry Wright of McMaster University's (Hamilton, Ontario, Canada) Michael G. DeGroote Institute for Infectious Disease Research and Global Nexus for Pandemics and Biological Threats, with the help of a global team of collaborators. It is built entirely using open source software and tools. This research has been supported by funds from the Canadian Foundation for Innovation, Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, Medical Research Council (UK), Genome Canada, and the Ontario Research Fund.

CARD: Expert-curated collection of molecular sequences and mutations underlying AMR, organized by the Antibiotic Resistance Ontology. RGI: Prediction of complete resistome from genomic and metagenomic data. Resistomes & Variants: Pre-compiled resistomes, allelic variants, and AMR gene prevalence data for priority pathogens. Annotation Services: Have the CARD team annotate your genomic data. Hosting Services: Host your own genome sequence collections on the CARD website, private & password-secure, with annotation constantly updated by RGI. Bait Capture: Hybridization bait enrichment of AMR alleles for your metagenomic sequencing projects.

CARD Mailing List

Receive email notification of monthly CARD updates via the CARD Mailing List.


Browse the CARD Frequently Asked Questions.

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3. Copyright and Discliamer

All of the materials on this website, including but not limited to the CARD, the RGI, and the underlying HTML, text, illustration, designs, icons, audio clips, video clips, documents, products, software and all other content (the "Materials") are protected by copyright and are either owned by McMaster University, provided by the creator for free use by the scientific community, or McMaster University has obtained a license to use the Materials for their website. Except as noted in the Terms of Use below, specifically sections 4 and 5 below, none of the Materials may be copied, reproduced, distributed, republished, downloaded, displayed, posted or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written consent of McMaster University, or the original creator, where applicable.

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Exception: Ontologies at the Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database are freely available under the Creative Commons CC-BY license version 4.0

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