Antibiotic Resistance Ontology

The CARD is a rigorously curated collection of known resistance determinants and associated antibiotics, organized by the Antibiotic Resistance Ontology (ARO). Browse the major branches of the ARO or search the ARO Index and CARD Classification.

Model Ontology

While antibiotic resistance concepts are organized by the ARO, sequence and mutation data in the CARD are organized using AMR detection models. Learn more about the model types and their parameters or search the Model Index.

Mobilome Ontology

A ontology describing mobile genetic elements responsible for horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance and virulence factors within and among genomes, plasmids, and pathogens. 2023 update: MOBIO is currently being developed independently of the CARD website, see

Virulence Ontology

A draft ontology describing pathogen virulence determinants and mechanisms, developed by undergraduate research teams. Currently not under development. Browse the major branches of the VIRO.