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Antibiotic Resistance Ontology

The CARD is a rigorously curated collection of known resistance determinants and associated antibiotics, organized by the Antibiotic Resistance Ontology (ARO). Browse the major branches of the ARO or search the ARO Index.

A Note on Ongoing Revisions of the Antibiotic Resistance Ontology

Model Ontology

While antibiotic resistance concepts are organized by the ARO, sequence and mutation data in the CARD are organized using AMR detection models. Learn more about the model types and their parameters or search the Model Index.

Mobilome Ontology

A draft ontology describing mobile genetic elements responsible for horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance and virulence factors within and among genomes, plasmids, and pathogens. Browse the major branches of the MOBIO.

Virulence Ontology

A draft ontology describing pathogen virulence determinants and mechanisms, developed by undergraduate research teams. Browse the major branches of the VIRO.