MARTX toxins

Accession VIRO:0000150
Synonym(s)Multifunctional autoprocessing RTX toxins
DefinitionMultifunctional autoprocessing RTX toxins (MARTX) are large exotoxins of 350–560 kDa produced by various species of gram-negative bacteria that interact with a wide range of insect, mammalian, and aquatic animal hosts. The toxins range in size from 3,500 to 5,300 amino acids and are frequently encoded by the largest open reading frames of a bacterial genome. MARTX is capable of inducing cytopathic activities in host cells including actin depolymerization, Rho inactivation, caspase 3/7-dependent apoptosis, and induction of reactive oxygen species. Similar to contact-dependent bacterial secretion mechanisms, such as type III secretion (T3S) and type IV secretion (T4S), the ultimate result of delivery of a MARTX toxin to target eukaryotic cells is transfer of cytotoxic and cytopathic effectors that disrupt normal eukaryotic cell biology.
Classification5 ontology terms | Show
Parent Term(s)1 ontology terms | Show
2 ontology terms | Show

Sheahan KL, et al. 2004. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(26):9798-803 Identification of a domain within the multifunctional Vibrio cholerae RTX toxin that covalently cross-links actin. (PMID 15199181)

Satchell KJF, et al. 2015. Microbiol Spectr 3(3): Multifunctional-autoprocessing repeats-in-toxin (MARTX) Toxins of Vibrios. (PMID 26185092)

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