Accession ARO:3000819
CARD Short NamenalD
DefinitionNalD is a repressor of MexAB-OprM. Mutations lead to multidrug resistance and MexAB-OprM overexpression.
AMR Gene Familyresistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) antibiotic efflux pump
Drug Classpeptide antibiotic, diaminopyrimidine antibiotic, sulfonamide antibiotic, carbapenem, cephalosporin, fluoroquinolone antibiotic, macrolide antibiotic, tetracycline antibiotic, monobactam, aminocoumarin antibiotic, phenicol antibiotic, penam, penem, cephamycin
Resistance Mechanismantibiotic efflux
Efflux Componentefflux pump complex or subunit conferring antibiotic resistance
Efflux Regulatorprotein(s) and two-component regulatory system modulating antibiotic efflux
Resistomes with Sequence VariantsPseudomonas aeruginosag+p+wgs, Pseudomonas fluorescensg
Classification47 ontology terms | Show
+ process or component of antibiotic biology or chemistry
+ antibiotic molecule
+ peptide antibiotic [Drug Class]
+ mechanism of antibiotic resistance
+ beta-lactam antibiotic
+ lipopeptide antibiotic
+ diaminopyrimidine antibiotic [Drug Class]
+ cephem
+ determinant of antibiotic resistance
+ polymyxin antibiotic
+ sulfonamide antibiotic [Drug Class]
+ antibiotic efflux [Resistance Mechanism]
+ carbapenem [Drug Class]
+ cephalosporin [Drug Class]
+ fluoroquinolone antibiotic [Drug Class]
+ macrolide antibiotic [Drug Class]
+ tetracycline antibiotic [Drug Class]
+ colistin
+ antibiotic mixture
+ efflux pump complex or subunit conferring antibiotic resistance [Efflux Component]
+ monobactam [Drug Class]
+ trimethoprim [Antibiotic]
+ aminocoumarin antibiotic [Drug Class]
+ phenicol antibiotic [Drug Class]
+ penam [Drug Class]
+ sulfamethoxazole [Antibiotic]
+ ciprofloxacin [Antibiotic]
+ resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) antibiotic efflux pump [AMR Gene Family]
+ aztreonam [Antibiotic]
+ colistin A [Antibiotic]
+ colistin B [Antibiotic]
+ tetracycline [Antibiotic]
+ azithromycin [Antibiotic]
+ novobiocin [Antibiotic]
+ penem [Drug Class]
+ trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole [Antibiotic]
+ ceftazidime [Antibiotic]
+ cephamycin [Drug Class]
+ meropenem [Antibiotic]
+ ampicillin [Antibiotic]
+ chloramphenicol [Antibiotic]
+ ceftriaxone [Antibiotic]
+ erythromycin [Antibiotic]
+ panipenem [Antibiotic]
+ MexAB-OprM
+ ticarcillin [Antibiotic]
+ nalidixic acid [Antibiotic]
Parent Term(s)3 ontology terms | Show

Sobel ML, et al. 2005. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49(5): 1782-1786. Mutations in PA3574 (nalD) lead to increased MexAB-OprM expression and multidrug resistance in laboratory and clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (PMID 15855496)


Prevalence of nalD among the sequenced genomes, plasmids, and whole-genome shotgun assemblies available at NCBI or IslandViewer for 413 important pathogens (see methodological details and complete list of analyzed pathogens). Values reflect percentage of genomes, plasmids, genome islands, or whole-genome shotgun assemblies that have at least one hit to the AMR detection model. Default view includes percentages calculated based on Perfect plus Strict RGI hits. Select the checkbox to view percentages based on only Perfect matches to AMR reference sequences curated in CARD (note: this excludes resistance via mutation as references in protein variant models are often wild-type, sensitive sequences).

Prevalence: protein overexpression model (view sequences)

SpeciesNCBI ChromosomeNCBI PlasmidNCBI WGSNCBI GI
Pseudomonas aeruginosa93.56%0.29%65.99%0%
Pseudomonas fluorescens2.78%0%0%0%
Show Perfect Only

Detection Models

Model Type: protein overexpression model

Model Definition: Protein Overexpression Models (POM) are similar to Protein Variant Models (PVM) in that they include a protein reference sequence, a curated BLASTP bitscore cut-off, and mapped resistance variants. Whereas PVMs are designed to detect AMR acquired via mutation of house-keeping genes or antibiotic targets, reporting only those with curated mutations conferring AMR, POMs are restricted to regulatory proteins and report both wild-type sequences and/or sequences with mutations leading to overexpression of efflux complexes. The former lead to efflux of antibiotics at basal levels, while the latter can confer clinical resistance. POMs include a protein reference sequence (often from wild-type alleles), a curated bit-score cut-off, and mapped resistance variants. Mapped resistance variants may include any or all of single point mutations, insertions, or deletions curated from the scientific literature. A Perfect RGI match is 100% identical to the wild-type reference protein sequence along its entire length, a Strict RGI match has a BLASTP bit-score above the curated BLASTP cutoff value may or may not contain at least one curated mutation from amongst the mapped resistance variants, while a Loose RGI match has a bit-score less than the curated BLASTP bit-score cut-off may or may not contain at least one curated mutation from amongst the mapped resistance variants.

Bit-score Cut-off (blastP): 375


  • discovered in clinical, agricultural, or environmental isolates

  • discovered via laboratory selection experiments

  • ReSeqTB

Published Variants:


>gb|AAG06962.1|+|nalD [Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1]

>gb|AE004091.2|+|4006510-4007148|nalD [Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1]