Accession VIRO:0000508
DefinitionThe principal activities of pneumolysin have been viewed as the capacity to induce pores in cholesterol rich membranes, which equates with hemolytic activity, and the ability to activate complement, both of which play a role in virulence in an animal model of pneumonia. Its effects on the human body include the following: Central nervous system: endothelial cell detachment and apoptosis, inflammation in the sub-arachnoid space, apoptosis of hippocampal neurones and microglia, ciliary dysfunction of brain ependymal cells. Inner ear: reduces the amplitude of action potential response to sound, morphological changes to hair cells of the organ of Corti. Lymphoid tissue: T-cell and dendrite cell apoptosis. Lower respiratory tract: cytotoxicity to bronchial and alveolar epithelium, cytotoxicity to endothelial cells leading to alveolar edema and hemorrhage, alveolar macrophage depletion, inactivation of anti-proteases, release of superoxide and serine proteases by neutrophils, recruitment of neutrophils, macrophages, and T-cells, upregulation of cytokines/chemokines (IL-8, MIP-2, IL-6), stimulation of NO, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 production of macrophages, host mediated macrophage apoptosis, target for antibodies that modulate disease. Eye: increase in inflammatory cell recruitment in cornea and vitreous fluid. Upper respiratory tract: epithelial cell injury, impaired ciliary function, stimulates TLR4 dependent host-mediated apoptosis, up regulation of MUC5A mucin, CD4 T-cells responses to pneumolysin contribute to clearance of colonization
Classification13 ontology terms | Show
Parent Term(s)3 ontology terms | Show

Marriott HM, et al. 2008. Curr. Mol. Med. 8(6):497-509 Pneumolysin: a double-edged sword during the host-pathogen interaction. (PMID 18781957)

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