pmrA

Accession ARO:3000822
DefinitionPmrA is a MFS-type efflux pump expressed in Streptococcus pneumoniae that confers low-level resistance to norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and acriflavine.
AMR Gene Familymajor facilitator superfamily (MFS) antibiotic efflux pump
Drug Classtetracycline antibiotic, benzalkonium chloride, fluoroquinolone antibiotic, antibacterial free fatty acids, acridine dye, lincosamide antibiotic, fosfomycin, diaminopyrimidine antibiotic, oxazolidinone antibiotic, bicyclomycin, macrolide antibiotic, glycylcycline, phenicol antibiotic, penam, peptide antibiotic, rhodamine, cephalosporin, nitroimidazole antibiotic, isoniazid, rifamycin antibiotic, nucleoside antibiotic
Resistance Mechanismantibiotic efflux
Efflux Componentefflux pump complex or subunit conferring antibiotic resistance
ResistomesStreptococcus pneumoniaeg+wgs
Classification30 ontology terms | Show
Parent Term(s)3 ontology terms | Show
+ confers_resistance_to_antibiotic ciprofloxacin [Antibiotic]
+ major facilitator superfamily (MFS) antibiotic efflux pump [AMR Gene Family]
+ confers_resistance_to_antibiotic norfloxacin [Antibiotic]
Publications

Gill MJ, et al. 1999. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 43(1): 187-189. Identification of an efflux pump gene, pmrA, associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae. (PMID 9869592)

El Garch F, et al. 2010. J Antimicrob Chemother 65(10): 2076-2082. Fluoroquinolones induce the expression of patA and patB, which encode ABC efflux pumps in Streptococcus pneumoniae. (PMID 20709735)

Piddock LJ, et al. 2002. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46(3): 808-812. Expression of efflux pump gene pmrA in fluoroquinolone-resistant and -susceptible clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. (PMID 11850265)

Lee H, et al. 2004. J Bacteriol 186(13): 4124-4133. The PmrA-regulated pmrC gene mediates phosphoethanolamine modification of lipid A and polymyxin resistance in Salmonella enterica. (PMID 15205413)

Resistomes

Prevalence of pmrA among the sequenced genomes, plasmids, and whole-genome shotgun assemblies available at NCBI for 82 important pathogens (see methodological details and complete list of analyzed pathogens). Values reflect percentage of genomes, plasmids, or whole-genome shotgun assemblies that have at least one hit to the AMR detection model. Default view includes percentages calculated based on Perfect plus Strict RGI hits. Select the checkbox to view percentages based on only Perfect matches to AMR reference sequences curated in CARD (note: this excludes resistance via mutation as references in protein variant models are often wild-type, sensitive sequences).

Prevalence: protein homolog model (view sequences)

SpeciesNCBI ChromosomeNCBI PlasmidNCBI WGS
Streptococcus pneumoniae95.24%0%97.39%
Show Perfect Only


Detection Models

Model Type: protein homolog model

Model Definition: The protein homolog model is an AMR detection model. Protein homolog models detect a protein sequence based on its similarity to a curated reference sequence. A protein homolog model has only one parameter: a curated BLASTP bitscore cutoff for determining the strength of a match. Protein homolog model matches to reference sequences are categorized on three criteria: perfect, strict and loose. A perfect match is 100% identical to the reference sequence along its entire length; a strict match is not identical but the bitscore of the matched sequence is greater than the curated BLASTP bitscore cutoff. Loose matches are other sequences with a match bitscore less than the curated BLASTP bitscore.

Bit-score Cut-off (blastP): 750


>gb|AAK99679.1|+|pmrA [Streptococcus pneumoniae R6]
MTEINWKDNLRIAWFGNFLTGASISLVVPFMPIFVENLGVGSQQVAFYAGLAISVSAISAALFSPIWGILADKYGRKPMMIRAGLAMTIT
MGGLAFVPNIYWLIFLRLLNGVFAGFVPNATALIASQVPKEKSGSALGTLSTGVVAGTLTGPFIGGFIAELFGIRTVFLLVGSFLFLAAI
LTICFIKEDFQPVAKEKAIPTKELFTSVKYPYLLLNLFLTSFVIQFSAQSIGPILALYVRDLGQTENLLFVSGLIVSSMGFSSMMSAGVM
GKLGDKVGNHRLLVVAQFYSVIIYLLCANASSPLQLGLYRFLFGLGTGALIPGVNALLSKMTPKAGISRVFAFNQVFFYLGGVVGPMAGS
AVAGQFGYHAVFYATSLCVAFSCLFNLIQFRTLLKVKEI


>gb|AE007317.1|+|866211-867410|pmrA [Streptococcus pneumoniae R6]
ATGACAGAGATTAACTGGAAGGATAATCTGCGTATTGCCTGGTTTGGTAATTTTCTGACAGGAGCCAGTATTTCTTTGGTTGTACCTTTT
ATGCCCATCTTCGTGGAAAATCTAGGTGTAGGGAGTCAGCAAGTCGCTTTTTATGCAGGCTTAGCAATTTCTGTCTCTGCTATTTCCGCG
GCGCTCTTTTCTCCTATTTGGGGTATTCTTGCTGACAAATACGGCCGAAAACCCATGATGATTCGGGCAGGTCTTGCTATGACTATCACT
ATGGGAGGCTTGGCCTTTGTCCCAAATATCTATTGGTTAATCTTTCTTCGTTTACTAAACGGTGTATTTGCAGGTTTTGTTCCTAATGCA
ACGGCACTGATAGCCAGTCAGGTTCCAAAGGAGAAATCAGGCTCTGCCTTAGGTACTTTGTCTACAGGCGTAGTTGCAGGTACTCTAACC
GGTCCCTTTATTGGTGGCTTTATCGCAGAATTATTTGGCATTCGTACAGTTTTCTTACTGGTTGGTAGTTTTCTATTTTTAGCTGCTATT
TTGACTATTTGCTTTATCAAGGAAGATTTTCAACCAGTAGCCAAGGAAAAGGCTATTCCAACAAAGGAATTATTTACCTCGGTTAAATAT
CCCTATCTTTTGCTCAATCTCTTTTTAACCAGTTTTGTCATCCAATTTTCAGCTCAATCGATCGGCCCTATTTTGGCTCTTTATGTACGC
GACTTAGGGCAGACAGAGAATCTTCTTTTTGTCTCTGGTTTGATTGTGTCCAGTATGGGCTTTTCCAGTATGATGAGTGCAGGAGTCATG
GGCAAGCTAGGTGACAAGGTGGGCAATCATCGTCTCTTGGTTGTCGCCCAGTTTTATTCAGTCATCATCTATCTCCTCTGTGCCAATGCC
TCTAGCCCCCTTCAACTAGGACTCTATCGTTTCCTCTTTGGCTTGGGAACCGGTGCCTTGATTCCAGGGGTTAATGCCCTACTCAGCAAA
ATGACTCCCAAAGCCGGCATTTCGAGGGTCTTTGCCTTCAATCAGGTATTCTTTTATCTGGGAGGTGTTGTTGGTCCCATGGCAGGTTCT
GCAGTAGCAGGTCAATTTGGCTACCATGCTGTCTTTTATGCGACAAGCCTTTGTGTTGCCTTTAGTTGTCTCTTTAACCTGATTCAATTT
CGAACATTATTAAAAGTAAAGGAAATCTAG