pmrA

Accession ARO:3000822
CARD Short NamepmrA
DefinitionPmrA is a MFS-type efflux pump expressed in Streptococcus pneumoniae that confers low-level resistance to norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and acriflavine.
AMR Gene Familymajor facilitator superfamily (MFS) antibiotic efflux pump
Drug Classfluoroquinolone antibiotic
Resistance Mechanismantibiotic efflux
Efflux Componentefflux pump complex or subunit conferring antibiotic resistance
Resistomes with Perfect MatchesStreptococcus pneumoniaeg+wgs
Resistomes with Sequence VariantsAcinetobacter nosocomialiswgs, Klebsiella pneumoniaewgs, Streptococcus gwangjuenseg, Streptococcus mitisg+wgs, Streptococcus pneumoniaeg+wgs, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniaeg+wgs
Classification7 ontology terms | Show
Parent Term(s)3 ontology terms | Show
+ confers_resistance_to_antibiotic ciprofloxacin [Antibiotic]
+ major facilitator superfamily (MFS) antibiotic efflux pump [AMR Gene Family]
+ confers_resistance_to_antibiotic norfloxacin [Antibiotic]
Publications

Gill MJ, et al. 1999. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 43(1): 187-189. Identification of an efflux pump gene, pmrA, associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae. (PMID 9869592)

El Garch F, et al. 2010. J Antimicrob Chemother 65(10): 2076-2082. Fluoroquinolones induce the expression of patA and patB, which encode ABC efflux pumps in Streptococcus pneumoniae. (PMID 20709735)

Piddock LJ, et al. 2002. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46(3): 808-812. Expression of efflux pump gene pmrA in fluoroquinolone-resistant and -susceptible clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. (PMID 11850265)

Lee H, et al. 2004. J Bacteriol 186(13): 4124-4133. The PmrA-regulated pmrC gene mediates phosphoethanolamine modification of lipid A and polymyxin resistance in Salmonella enterica. (PMID 15205413)

Resistomes

Prevalence of pmrA among the sequenced genomes, plasmids, and whole-genome shotgun assemblies available at NCBI or IslandViewer for 377 important pathogens (see methodological details and complete list of analyzed pathogens). Values reflect percentage of genomes, plasmids, genome islands, or whole-genome shotgun assemblies that have at least one hit to the AMR detection model. Default view includes percentages calculated based on Perfect plus Strict RGI hits. Select the checkbox to view percentages based on only Perfect matches to AMR reference sequences curated in CARD (note: this excludes resistance via mutation as references in protein variant models are often wild-type, sensitive sequences).

Prevalence: protein homolog model (view sequences)

SpeciesNCBI ChromosomeNCBI PlasmidNCBI WGSNCBI GI
Acinetobacter nosocomialis0%0%0.65%0%
Klebsiella pneumoniae0%0%0.01%0%
Streptococcus gwangjuense100%0%0%0%
Streptococcus mitis88.89%0%75.48%0%
Streptococcus pneumoniae94.36%0%93.1%0%
Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae100%0%70.09%0%
Show Perfect Only


Detection Models

Model Type: protein homolog model

Model Definition: Protein Homolog Models (PHM) detect protein sequences based on their similarity to a curated reference sequence, using curated BLASTP bitscore cut-offs. Protein Homolog Models apply to all genes that confer resistance through their presence in an organism, such as the presence of a beta-lactamase gene on a plasmid. PHMs include a reference sequence and a bitscore cut-off for detection using BLASTP. A Perfect RGI match is 100% identical to the reference protein sequence along its entire length, a Strict RGI match is not identical but the bit-score of the matched sequence is greater than the curated BLASTP bit-score cutoff, Loose RGI matches have a bit-score less than the curated BLASTP bit-score cut-off.

Bit-score Cut-off (blastP): 750


>gb|AAK99679.1|+|pmrA [Streptococcus pneumoniae R6]
MTEINWKDNLRIAWFGNFLTGASISLVVPFMPIFVENLGVGSQQVAFYAGLAISVSAISAALFSPIWGILADKYGRKPMMIRAGLAMTIT
MGGLAFVPNIYWLIFLRLLNGVFAGFVPNATALIASQVPKEKSGSALGTLSTGVVAGTLTGPFIGGFIAELFGIRTVFLLVGSFLFLAAI
LTICFIKEDFQPVAKEKAIPTKELFTSVKYPYLLLNLFLTSFVIQFSAQSIGPILALYVRDLGQTENLLFVSGLIVSSMGFSSMMSAGVM
GKLGDKVGNHRLLVVAQFYSVIIYLLCANASSPLQLGLYRFLFGLGTGALIPGVNALLSKMTPKAGISRVFAFNQVFFYLGGVVGPMAGS
AVAGQFGYHAVFYATSLCVAFSCLFNLIQFRTLLKVKEI


>gb|AE007317.1|+|866211-867410|pmrA [Streptococcus pneumoniae R6]
ATGACAGAGATTAACTGGAAGGATAATCTGCGTATTGCCTGGTTTGGTAATTTTCTGACAGGAGCCAGTATTTCTTTGGTTGTACCTTTT
ATGCCCATCTTCGTGGAAAATCTAGGTGTAGGGAGTCAGCAAGTCGCTTTTTATGCAGGCTTAGCAATTTCTGTCTCTGCTATTTCCGCG
GCGCTCTTTTCTCCTATTTGGGGTATTCTTGCTGACAAATACGGCCGAAAACCCATGATGATTCGGGCAGGTCTTGCTATGACTATCACT
ATGGGAGGCTTGGCCTTTGTCCCAAATATCTATTGGTTAATCTTTCTTCGTTTACTAAACGGTGTATTTGCAGGTTTTGTTCCTAATGCA
ACGGCACTGATAGCCAGTCAGGTTCCAAAGGAGAAATCAGGCTCTGCCTTAGGTACTTTGTCTACAGGCGTAGTTGCAGGTACTCTAACC
GGTCCCTTTATTGGTGGCTTTATCGCAGAATTATTTGGCATTCGTACAGTTTTCTTACTGGTTGGTAGTTTTCTATTTTTAGCTGCTATT
TTGACTATTTGCTTTATCAAGGAAGATTTTCAACCAGTAGCCAAGGAAAAGGCTATTCCAACAAAGGAATTATTTACCTCGGTTAAATAT
CCCTATCTTTTGCTCAATCTCTTTTTAACCAGTTTTGTCATCCAATTTTCAGCTCAATCGATCGGCCCTATTTTGGCTCTTTATGTACGC
GACTTAGGGCAGACAGAGAATCTTCTTTTTGTCTCTGGTTTGATTGTGTCCAGTATGGGCTTTTCCAGTATGATGAGTGCAGGAGTCATG
GGCAAGCTAGGTGACAAGGTGGGCAATCATCGTCTCTTGGTTGTCGCCCAGTTTTATTCAGTCATCATCTATCTCCTCTGTGCCAATGCC
TCTAGCCCCCTTCAACTAGGACTCTATCGTTTCCTCTTTGGCTTGGGAACCGGTGCCTTGATTCCAGGGGTTAATGCCCTACTCAGCAAA
ATGACTCCCAAAGCCGGCATTTCGAGGGTCTTTGCCTTCAATCAGGTATTCTTTTATCTGGGAGGTGTTGTTGGTCCCATGGCAGGTTCT
GCAGTAGCAGGTCAATTTGGCTACCATGCTGTCTTTTATGCGACAAGCCTTTGTGTTGCCTTTAGTTGTCTCTTTAACCTGATTCAATTT
CGAACATTATTAAAAGTAAAGGAAATCTAG