norA

Accession ARO:3000391
CARD Short NamenorA
DefinitionNorA is a multidrug efflux pump in Staphylococcus aureus that confers resistance to fluoroquinolones and other structurally unrelated antibiotics like acriflavine. It shares 30% similarity with NorA, and is a structural homolog of Bmr of Bacillus subtilis. It is regulated by arlRS and mgrA, the latter also known as NorR.
AMR Gene Familymajor facilitator superfamily (MFS) antibiotic efflux pump
Drug Classfluoroquinolone antibiotic, disinfecting agents and antiseptics
Resistance Mechanismantibiotic efflux
Efflux Componentefflux pump complex or subunit conferring antibiotic resistance
Resistomes with Perfect MatchesStaphylococcus epidermidisg+wgs
Resistomes with Sequence VariantsBacillus velezensiswgs, Shigella flexneriwgs, Staphylococcus capitiswgs, Staphylococcus epidermidisg+wgs, Staphylococcus hominiswgs
Classification8 ontology terms | Show
Parent Term(s)4 ontology terms | Show
+ confers_resistance_to_antibiotic ciprofloxacin [Antibiotic]
+ confers_resistance_to_antibiotic acriflavine [Antibiotic]
+ major facilitator superfamily (MFS) antibiotic efflux pump [AMR Gene Family]
+ confers_resistance_to_antibiotic norfloxacin [Antibiotic]
Sub-Term(s)
3 ontology terms | Show
+ arlRS regulates
+ mgrA regulates
+ norC regulates
Publications

Truong-Bolduc QC, et al. 2003. J Bacteriol 185(10): 3127-3138. Characterization of NorR protein, a multifunctional regulator of norA expression in Staphylococcus aureus. (PMID 12730173)

Neyfakh AA, et al. 1993. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 37(1): 128-129. Fluoroquinolone resistance protein NorA of Staphylococcus aureus is a multidrug efflux transporter. (PMID 8431010)

Truong-Bolduc QC, et al. 2005. J Bacteriol 187(7): 2395-2405. MgrA is a multiple regulator of two new efflux pumps in Staphylococcus aureus. (PMID 15774883)

Resistomes

Prevalence of norA among the sequenced genomes, plasmids, and whole-genome shotgun assemblies available at NCBI or IslandViewer for 377 important pathogens (see methodological details and complete list of analyzed pathogens). Values reflect percentage of genomes, plasmids, genome islands, or whole-genome shotgun assemblies that have at least one hit to the AMR detection model. Default view includes percentages calculated based on Perfect plus Strict RGI hits. Select the checkbox to view percentages based on only Perfect matches to AMR reference sequences curated in CARD (note: this excludes resistance via mutation as references in protein variant models are often wild-type, sensitive sequences).

Prevalence: protein homolog model (view sequences)

SpeciesNCBI ChromosomeNCBI PlasmidNCBI WGSNCBI GI
Bacillus velezensis0%0%0.46%0%
Shigella flexneri0%0%0.16%0%
Staphylococcus capitis0%0%0.65%0%
Staphylococcus epidermidis100%0%78.9%0%
Staphylococcus hominis0%0%0.51%0%
Show Perfect Only


Detection Models

Model Type: protein homolog model

Model Definition: Protein Homolog Models (PHM) detect protein sequences based on their similarity to a curated reference sequence, using curated BLASTP bitscore cut-offs. Protein Homolog Models apply to all genes that confer resistance through their presence in an organism, such as the presence of a beta-lactamase gene on a plasmid. PHMs include a reference sequence and a bitscore cut-off for detection using BLASTP. A Perfect RGI match is 100% identical to the reference protein sequence along its entire length, a Strict RGI match is not identical but the bit-score of the matched sequence is greater than the curated BLASTP bit-score cutoff, Loose RGI matches have a bit-score less than the curated BLASTP bit-score cut-off.

Bit-score Cut-off (blastP): 700


>gb|AAS68233.1|+|norA [Staphylococcus epidermidis]
MKKQLFILYFNIFLIFLGIGLVIPVLPVYLKDLGLKGSDLGMLVAAFALSQMIISPFGGTLADKLGKKLIICIGLVFFAVSEFMFAAGQS
FTILIISRVLGGFSAGMVMPGVTGMIADISPGADKAKNFGYMSAIINSGFILGPGFGGFLAEISHRLPFYVAGTLGVVAFIMSVLLIHNP
QKATTDGFHQYQPELFTKINWKVFITPVILTLVLAFGLSAFETLFSLYTADKVNYTPKDISIAIIGGGVFGALFQVFFFDKFMKYMSELN
FIAWSLLYSAIVLVMLVLANGYWTIMIISFVVFIGFDMIRPALTNYFSNIAGKRQGFAGGLNSTFTSMGNFIGPLVAGALFDVNLEFPLY
MAIAVSLSGIIIIFIEKGLKSRRKEAN


>gb|AY566250.1|+|392-1555|norA [Staphylococcus epidermidis]
ATGAAAAAACAATTATTCATTCTTTATTTTAATATATTTCTTATATTTTTAGGGATTGGATTAGTTATTCCTGTACTTCCTGTATATTTG
AAGGATTTAGGATTAAAAGGTAGTGACTTAGGAATGCTAGTTGCTGCTTTTGCATTATCACAAATGATTATTTCACCATTTGGTGGGACA
CTAGCTGATAAATTGGGTAAAAAATTAATTATATGTATCGGTTTAGTATTCTTTGCTGTCTCTGAATTTATGTTCGCAGCCGGTCAAAGT
TTTACCATTTTAATCATTTCACGTGTTTTAGGTGGCTTTAGTGCAGGCATGGTCATGCCTGGTGTAACAGGTATGATTGCAGATATTTCT
CCAGGAGCTGATAAAGCTAAAAACTTTGGTTACATGTCGGCAATTATTAATTCAGGTTTTATATTAGGACCTGGATTTGGAGGCTTTTTA
GCTGAAATTTCACATAGATTACCTTTCTATGTTGCTGGAACATTAGGTGTTGTTGCATTCATTATGTCAGTTTTATTAATTCATAATCCT
CAAAAAGCAACTACAGATGGATTCCACCAATATCAACCTGAATTATTCACTAAAATTAATTGGAAAGTATTTATTACTCCAGTCATATTA
ACACTTGTATTAGCATTTGGTTTATCTGCTTTTGAAACATTATTTTCTTTATATACAGCTGACAAAGTAAATTATACTCCTAAAGATATT
TCGATAGCTATTATCGGTGGAGGCGTGTTTGGCGCATTATTCCAAGTATTCTTCTTTGATAAATTTATGAAATATATGAGTGAACTTAAT
TTTATTGCATGGTCATTACTATATTCAGCCATTGTTCTCGTTATGTTAGTGCTTGCAAACGGTTATTGGACGATTATGATTATTAGCTTT
GTTGTTTTTATAGGTTTTGATATGATTAGACCAGCTTTAACCAATTACTTCTCGAATATAGCAGGCAAACGGCAAGGTTTTGCAGGTGGA
TTGAATTCAACTTTTACCAGTATGGGTAACTTTATAGGTCCTCTTGTAGCTGGTGCATTATTCGATGTTAATTTAGAGTTTCCTTTATAT
ATGGCTATTGCGGTTTCATTAAGTGGAATTATCATTATTTTTATTGAAAAAGGACTTAAGTCACGCCGTAAAGAAGCAAATTAA