Accession ARO:3000828
CARD Short NamebaeR
DefinitionBaeR is a response regulator that promotes the expression of MdtABC and AcrD efflux complexes.
AMR Gene Familyresistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) antibiotic efflux pump
Drug Classaminoglycoside antibiotic, aminocoumarin antibiotic
Resistance Mechanismantibiotic efflux
Efflux Componentefflux pump complex or subunit conferring antibiotic resistance
Efflux Regulatorprotein(s) and two-component regulatory system modulating antibiotic efflux
Resistomes with Perfect MatchesEscherichia albertiig+wgs, Escherichia colig+p+wgs, Escherichia fergusoniig+wgs, Escherichia marmotaewgs, Shigella boydiig+wgs, Shigella dysenteriaeg+wgs, Shigella flexnerig+wgs, Shigella sonneig+wgs
Resistomes with Sequence VariantsCitrobacter amalonaticusg+wgs, Citrobacter freundiig+wgs, Citrobacter koserig+wgs, Citrobacter portucalensisg+wgs, Citrobacter werkmaniig+wgs, Citrobacter youngaeg+wgs, Enterobacter asburiaeg+wgs, Enterobacter cancerogenusg+wgs, Enterobacter chengduensisg+wgs, Enterobacter cloacaeg+wgs, Enterobacter hormaecheig+wgs, Enterobacter kobeig+wgs, Enterobacter roggenkampiig+wgs, Escherichia albertiig+wgs, Escherichia colig+p+wgs, Escherichia fergusoniig+p+wgs, Escherichia marmotaeg+wgs, Klebsiella aerogenesg+wgs, Klebsiella huaxiensisg+wgs, Klebsiella michiganensisg+wgs, Klebsiella oxytocag+wgs, Klebsiella pneumoniaeg+wgs+gi, Klebsiella quasipneumoniaeg+wgs, Kosakonia arachidisg+wgs, Leclercia adecarboxylatag+wgs, Pseudomonas aeruginosawgs, Raoultella planticolag+wgs, Salmonella bongorig+wgs, Salmonella entericag+wgs, Shigella boydiig+wgs, Shigella dysenteriaeg+wgs, Shigella flexnerig+wgs, Shigella sonneig+wgs
Classification20 ontology terms | Show
Parent Term(s)2 ontology terms | Show

Nagakubo S, et al. 2002. J Bacteriol 184(15): 4161-4167. The putative response regulator BaeR stimulates multidrug resistance of Escherichia coli via a novel multidrug exporter system, MdtABC. (PMID 12107133)

Liu X, et al. 2023. mSystems :e0129122 Mutation in the two-component regulator BaeSR mediates cefiderocol resistance and enhances virulence in Acinetobacter baumannii. (PMID 37345941)


Prevalence of baeR among the sequenced genomes, plasmids, and whole-genome shotgun assemblies available at NCBI or IslandViewer for 413 important pathogens (see methodological details and complete list of analyzed pathogens). Values reflect percentage of genomes, plasmids, genome islands, or whole-genome shotgun assemblies that have at least one hit to the AMR detection model. Default view includes percentages calculated based on Perfect plus Strict RGI hits. Select the checkbox to view percentages based on only Perfect matches to AMR reference sequences curated in CARD (note: this excludes resistance via mutation as references in protein variant models are often wild-type, sensitive sequences).

Prevalence: protein overexpression model (view sequences)

SpeciesNCBI ChromosomeNCBI PlasmidNCBI WGSNCBI GI
Citrobacter amalonaticus100%0%89.09%0%
Citrobacter freundii100%0%50.48%0%
Citrobacter koseri100%0%49.55%0%
Citrobacter portucalensis100%0%62.16%0%
Citrobacter werkmanii100%0%61.54%0%
Citrobacter youngae100%0%100%0%
Enterobacter asburiae100%0%70.75%0%
Enterobacter cancerogenus100%0%100%0%
Enterobacter chengduensis100%0%84%0%
Enterobacter cloacae98.21%0%72.84%0%
Enterobacter hormaechei99.28%0%66.85%0%
Enterobacter kobei100%0%68.56%0%
Enterobacter roggenkampii95.35%0%62.23%0%
Escherichia albertii100%0%61.94%0%
Escherichia coli67.7%0.04%61.76%0%
Escherichia fergusonii100%0.36%48.91%0%
Escherichia marmotae100%0%70.83%0%
Klebsiella aerogenes100%0%79.66%0%
Klebsiella huaxiensis100%0%66.67%0%
Klebsiella michiganensis100%0%69.15%0%
Klebsiella oxytoca100%0%75.21%0%
Klebsiella pneumoniae99.35%0%57.33%26.67%
Klebsiella quasipneumoniae99.16%0%73.42%0%
Kosakonia arachidis100%0%100%0%
Leclercia adecarboxylata100%0%60.47%0%
Pseudomonas aeruginosa0%0%0.01%0%
Raoultella planticola88.89%0%94.87%0%
Salmonella bongori100%0%94.74%0%
Salmonella enterica95.71%0%80.87%0%
Shigella boydii100%0%97.78%0%
Shigella dysenteriae100%0%100%0%
Shigella flexneri100%0%81.68%0%
Shigella sonnei97.56%0%95.4%0%
Show Perfect Only

Detection Models

Model Type: protein overexpression model

Model Definition: Protein Overexpression Models (POM) are similar to Protein Variant Models (PVM) in that they include a protein reference sequence, a curated BLASTP bitscore cut-off, and mapped resistance variants. Whereas PVMs are designed to detect AMR acquired via mutation of house-keeping genes or antibiotic targets, reporting only those with curated mutations conferring AMR, POMs are restricted to regulatory proteins and report both wild-type sequences and/or sequences with mutations leading to overexpression of efflux complexes. The former lead to efflux of antibiotics at basal levels, while the latter can confer clinical resistance. POMs include a protein reference sequence (often from wild-type alleles), a curated bit-score cut-off, and mapped resistance variants. Mapped resistance variants may include any or all of single point mutations, insertions, or deletions curated from the scientific literature. A Perfect RGI match is 100% identical to the wild-type reference protein sequence along its entire length, a Strict RGI match has a BLASTP bit-score above the curated BLASTP cutoff value may or may not contain at least one curated mutation from amongst the mapped resistance variants, while a Loose RGI match has a bit-score less than the curated BLASTP bit-score cut-off may or may not contain at least one curated mutation from amongst the mapped resistance variants.

Bit-score Cut-off (blastP): 450


  • discovered in clinical, agricultural, or environmental isolates

  • discovered via laboratory selection experiments

  • ReSeqTB

Published Variants:

>gb|ADF62940.1|+|baeR [Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae ATCC 13047]

>gb|CP001918.1|+|3479860-3480582|baeR [Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae ATCC 13047]