Salmonella enterica ramR mutants

Accession ARO:3003379
CARD Short NameSent_ramR
DefinitionRamR is a repressor that regulates RamA expression. Mutations lead to the upregulation of AcrAB, which is positively regulated by RamA.
AMR Gene Familyresistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) antibiotic efflux pump
Drug Classtetracycline antibiotic, glycylcycline, phenicol antibiotic, cephalosporin, penam, disinfecting agents and antiseptics, rifamycin antibiotic, fluoroquinolone antibiotic
Resistance Mechanismantibiotic target alteration, antibiotic efflux
Efflux Componentefflux pump complex or subunit conferring antibiotic resistance
Efflux Regulatorprotein(s) and two-component regulatory system modulating antibiotic efflux
Resistomes with Sequence VariantsSalmonella entericawgs
Classification30 ontology terms | Show
Parent Term(s)2 ontology terms | Show
+ ramR
+ confers_resistance_to_antibiotic ciprofloxacin [Antibiotic]

Kehrenberg C, et al. 2009. J Antimicrob Chemother 64(6): 1175-1180. Decreased fluoroquinolone susceptibility in mutants of Salmonella serovars other than Typhimurium: detection of novel mutations involved in modulated expression of ramA and soxS. (PMID 19778917)

Abouzeed YM, et al. 2008. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52(7): 2428-2434. ramR mutations involved in efflux-mediated multidrug resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. (PMID 18443112)

O'Regan E, et al. 2009. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53(3): 1080-1087. Multiple regulatory pathways associated with high-level ciprofloxacin and multidrug resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis: involvement of RamA and other global regulators. (PMID 19104017)

Ricci V and Piddock LJ. 2009. J Antimicrob Chemother 63(5): 909-916. Ciprofloxacin selects for multidrug resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium mediated by at least two different pathways. (PMID 19270312)


Prevalence of Salmonella enterica ramR mutants among the sequenced genomes, plasmids, and whole-genome shotgun assemblies available at NCBI or IslandViewer for 413 important pathogens (see methodological details and complete list of analyzed pathogens). Values reflect percentage of genomes, plasmids, genome islands, or whole-genome shotgun assemblies that have at least one hit to the AMR detection model. Default view includes percentages calculated based on Perfect plus Strict RGI hits. Select the checkbox to view percentages based on only Perfect matches to AMR reference sequences curated in CARD (note: this excludes resistance via mutation as references in protein variant models are often wild-type, sensitive sequences).

Prevalence: protein variant model (view sequences)

SpeciesNCBI ChromosomeNCBI PlasmidNCBI WGSNCBI GI
Salmonella enterica0%0%0.11%0%
Show Perfect Only

Detection Models

Model Type: protein variant model

Model Definition: Protein Variant Models (PVM) perform a similar search as Protein Homolog Models (PHM), i.e. detect protein sequences based on their similarity to a curated reference sequence, but secondarily screen query sequences for curated sets of mutations to differentiate them from antibiotic susceptible wild-type alleles. PVMs are designed to detect AMR acquired via mutation of house-keeping genes or antibiotic targets, e.g. a mutated gyrase resistant to aminocoumarin antibiotics. PVMs include a protein reference sequence (often from antibiotic susceptible wild-type alleles), a curated bit-score cut-off, and mapped resistance variants. Mapped resistance variants may include any or all of single point mutations, insertions, or deletions curated from the scientific literature. A Strict RGI match has a BLASTP bit-score above the curated BLASTP cutoff value and contains at least one curated mutation from amongst the mapped resistance variants, while a Loose RGI match has a bit-score less than the curated BLASTP bit-score cut-off but still contains at least one curated mutation from amongst the mapped resistance variants.

Bit-score Cut-off (blastP): 370


  • discovered in clinical, agricultural, or environmental isolates

  • discovered via laboratory selection experiments

  • ReSeqTB

Published Variants:

>gb|ACH50230.1|-|Salmonella enterica ramR mutants [Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Agona str. SL483]

>gb|CP001138.1|-|613436-614017|Salmonella enterica ramR mutants [Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Agona str. SL483]