Accession ARO:3005068
CARD Short NameParR
DefinitionParR is a component of the two-component sensor ParRS. Alongside its counterpart ParS, it confers resistance to polycationic antibiotics through the regulation of efflux components and porins.
AMR Gene FamilyOuter Membrane Porin (Opr), resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) antibiotic efflux pump
Drug Classaminoglycoside antibiotic, fluoroquinolone antibiotic, carbapenem, monobactam, macrolide antibiotic, cephalosporin, penam, cephamycin, penem, disinfecting agents and antiseptics, tetracycline antibiotic, phenicol antibiotic
Resistance Mechanismantibiotic efflux, reduced permeability to antibiotic
Efflux Componentefflux pump complex or subunit conferring antibiotic resistance
Efflux Regulatorprotein(s) and two-component regulatory system modulating antibiotic efflux
Resistomes with Perfect MatchesPseudomonas aeruginosag+p+wgs, Pseudomonas fluorescensg
Resistomes with Sequence VariantsPseudomonas aeruginosag+p+wgs, Pseudomonas fluorescensg
Classification42 ontology terms | Show
+ process or component of antibiotic biology or chemistry
+ antibiotic molecule
+ beta-lactam antibiotic
+ mechanism of antibiotic resistance
+ aminoglycoside antibiotic [Drug Class]
+ cephem
+ antibiotic efflux [Resistance Mechanism]
+ antibiotic mixture
+ determinant of antibiotic resistance
+ reduced permeability to antibiotic [Resistance Mechanism]
+ fluoroquinolone antibiotic [Drug Class]
+ gentamicin [Antibiotic]
+ carbapenem [Drug Class]
+ monobactam [Drug Class]
+ macrolide antibiotic [Drug Class]
+ cephalosporin [Drug Class]
+ efflux pump complex or subunit conferring antibiotic resistance [Efflux Component]
+ penam [Drug Class]
+ cephamycin [Drug Class]
+ penem [Drug Class]
+ disinfecting agents and antiseptics [Drug Class]
+ protein modulating permeability to antibiotic
+ tetracycline antibiotic [Drug Class]
+ phenicol antibiotic [Drug Class]
+ gentamicin C [Antibiotic]
+ chloramphenicol [Antibiotic]
+ meropenem [Antibiotic]
+ acriflavine [Antibiotic]
+ Outer Membrane Porin (Opr) [AMR Gene Family]
+ imipenem [Antibiotic]
+ norfloxacin [Antibiotic]
+ tetracycline [Antibiotic]
+ ofloxacin [Antibiotic]
+ resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) antibiotic efflux pump [AMR Gene Family]
+ protein(s) and two-component regulatory system modulating antibiotic efflux [Efflux Regulator]
+ amikacin [Antibiotic]
+ ciprofloxacin [Antibiotic]
+ erythromycin [Antibiotic]
+ tobramycin [Antibiotic]
+ Pseudomonas aeruginosa oprD with mutation conferring resistance to imipenem
+ MexXY-OprM
+ protein of two-component regulatory system modulating antibiotic efflux
Parent Term(s)2 ontology terms | Show

Stover CK, et al. 2000. Nature 406(6799): 959-964. Complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, an opportunistic pathogen. (PMID 10984043)

Winsor GL, et al. 2004. Nucleic Acids Res 33(DATABASE ISSUE): D338-D343. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Genome Database and PseudoCAP: facilitating community-based, continually updated, genome annotation. (PMID 15608211)

Winsor GL, et al. 2008. Nucleic Acids Res 37(DATABASE ISSUE): D483-D488. Pseudomonas Genome Database: facilitating user-friendly, comprehensive comparisons of microbial genomes. (PMID 18978025)

Muller C, et al. 2011. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 55(3):1211-21 A two-component regulatory system interconnects resistance to polymyxins, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, and β-lactams in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (PMID 21149619)


Prevalence of ParR among the sequenced genomes, plasmids, and whole-genome shotgun assemblies available at NCBI or IslandViewer for 413 important pathogens (see methodological details and complete list of analyzed pathogens). Values reflect percentage of genomes, plasmids, genome islands, or whole-genome shotgun assemblies that have at least one hit to the AMR detection model. Default view includes percentages calculated based on Perfect plus Strict RGI hits. Select the checkbox to view percentages based on only Perfect matches to AMR reference sequences curated in CARD (note: this excludes resistance via mutation as references in protein variant models are often wild-type, sensitive sequences).

Prevalence: protein homolog model (view sequences)

SpeciesNCBI ChromosomeNCBI PlasmidNCBI WGSNCBI GI
Pseudomonas aeruginosa100%0.58%67.73%0%
Pseudomonas fluorescens2.78%0%0%0%
Show Perfect Only

Detection Models

Model Type: protein homolog model

Model Definition: Protein Homolog Models (PHM) detect protein sequences based on their similarity to a curated reference sequence, using curated BLASTP bitscore cut-offs. Protein Homolog Models apply to all genes that confer resistance through their presence in an organism, such as the presence of a beta-lactamase gene on a plasmid. PHMs include a reference sequence and a bitscore cut-off for detection using BLASTP. A Perfect RGI match is 100% identical to the reference protein sequence along its entire length, a Strict RGI match is not identical but the bit-score of the matched sequence is greater than the curated BLASTP bit-score cutoff, Loose RGI matches have a bit-score less than the curated BLASTP bit-score cut-off.

Bit-score Cut-off (blastP): 400

>gb|AAG05188.1|-|ParR [Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1]

>gb|AE004091.2|-|1951726-1952433|ParR [Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1]